Why Obsessions are not True Delusions

The word “delusion” in obsessive-compulsive disorder explains the absence of insight, not fixed belief associated with psychosis. Insight and pathological doubt provide clues about how psychological treatment might work differently for each person on the obsessive-compulsive spectrum and show whether this treatment is likely to be useful or not.

Photo by Siva Adithya on Pexels.com

How does a clinician assess insight?

This would usually be taken into account during assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS II). If not, any signs would typically be revealed during treatment. The same goes for pathological doubt.


First, intrusive thoughts or obsessions can be described as involuntary interruptions that get sandwiched between every-day regular thoughts. While intrusive thoughts interfere, they do not exist outside of a person’s awareness and do not convert to action. People who have good insight into their OCD know this, but have doubts about it.

So they still desire certainty, is that right?

Yes, doubt versus certainty plays a significant role in OCD. A person’s search for reassurance strengthens the obsession, so reinforcing this concept in therapy is a must.

Why else is this concept reinforced?

Some patients convince themselves their fear has or will come true, even though the emphasis is that emotional reasoning supports those assumptions. They find it hard to grasp that feelings and guess-work are not factual evidence and thus miss the “threat” factor. So it’s vital to help them understand the difference between emotion mind and rational mind.

What is the “threat” factor?

This is when a problem is perceived as a threat. For example, a person who has a harm obsession thinks about it with an irrational concept which links to over-importance of thoughts and catastrophising. Subsequently, emotional reasoning further clouds rational thinking and the person tends to question their actual values.

Can you expand on that?

Yes. Someone who has harm OCD (or another disturbing obsession) shows their actual values, which is, paradoxically, that they care deeply about people. The problem is that they cannot get past the barriers that confuse them when their intrusive thoughts “say” otherwise. They feel pinned down by OCD, fearing they are capable of putting thoughts to action. It’s not so simple to eradicate fears despite OCD being an incomprehensible disorder. People who have OCD are in conflict, they go over the relentless doubts when trying to understand thoughts in their head that can never be subject to analysis.

How can someone grasp this concept?

One example is known as The Theory A and Theory B experiment (Salkovskis & Bass, 1997). The person would look at their problem as worrying (theory B) about the thing that bothers them instead of fearing to be under threat (theory A).

How does this experiment work?

First, worry (theory B) is to feel anxious about something unpleasant that may have happened or could happen in the future; and threat (theory A) comes with “warning signals”. A person agrees in therapy to test out theory B by finding workable solutions to overcome their worry, thus removing the threat element. So on the subject of say contamination fears, one suggestion is for the patient to observe others interacting with each other and noting down the different types of responses that occur in this type of situation, which allows for rational concept. An example of both theories might be:

Theory A: The problem is that I feel anxious when I'm interacting with people; it's like they're all infected with HIV and I'm terrified I will contract this disease even without person-to-person contact. 
Theory B: The problem is that I care very much about interacting with people and the thought of contracting HIV from someone causes me great distress.

By working on rational concepts for theory B means the threat element (theory A) starts to weaken, noted before.

Is it true that false memory confuses insight?

Well, let’s say memory tends to play tricks for a person who has OCD. When this happens, they will ruminate at length, searching their minds for abstract recollections. However, while they might remember an existing memory, even when some of that memory is lost, they will never recall a “vague” memory because it never existed.

It’s essential, therefore, to work with the person to locate the pieces of information that are true and filtering out the rest. As an example, let’s go back to the person who has a harm obsession. Let’s assume they were in the same area at a time when someone was hurt in an accident. Later, they might “add” to the memory a non-existent one in which they fear they might have been the one who harmed that same person. They have this fear because they were wearing a blue jacket similar to the person who caused the accident. Learning to live with uncertainty would be reinforced in therapy.

So living with uncertainty is one of the factors for reaching recovery, right?

Yes, this is one of the factors that is involved in the treatment plan for OCD and works better for people who have good insight.

Can a person’s insight improve?

Sometimes. Cognitive restructuring can help a person alter thinking errors linked to faulty ideas, although some often lose sight of their new healthier beliefs because their need for certainty overrides this. Pathological doubt clouds insight and drives behaviours to prove obsessions right or wrong, which makes exposure response prevention (ERP) more of a challenge when the person cannot grab hold of certainty. Improved insight can help them know that while they want this type of assurance that living with uncertainty is the better option. They start to see that feeling under irrational threat forever keeps the OCD going in a circle.

Can obsessions turn into delusions?

Yes, obsessions can turn into delusions and delusions can turn into obsessions. A person’s misconceptions in this instance aren’t to be confused with those seen in psychosis. For example, if insight into an obsession is poor/lacking then this shifts from overvalued idea to delusional belief; a belief in psychosis, however, is fixed and does not follow the regular OCD cycle.

For delusion in OCD, insight can be worked on with cognitive restructuring of thoughts to change the pattern or significance of those thoughts. When the delusion turns into an obsession, it shows that cognitive restructuring has illuminated insight, also exposure response prevention since practising exposures squeezes the obsession, improving insight.

A new perspective, plus a reduction in symptoms, allows the person to comprehend the significance of false versus real events concerning the obsession and to see that all real events are separate from it. For example, it’s true that the person was wearing a blue jacket at the scene involving injury, but this does not make valid the perception “What if I was the one who hurt the injured person”?

What else helps a person reach recovery?

Mindfulness techniques are helpful because these help someone do what I call the 3 A’s. These are to Acknowledge, Accept and Allow intrusive thoughts to come and go in the present without passing judgement. Including the 3 A’s into exposures is also helpful since this technique contributes to building distress tolerance in which ERP leads ultimately to remission.


First, cognitive restructuring helps alter thoughts, feelings and behaviours and improves insight. Subsequently, agreeing to face obsessions (exposures) and resist compulsions (response prevention) shows how this active process eventually weakens obsessions and aids in one’s recovery. When treatment comes to an end, a personal blueprint helps people maintain their gains. This blueprint details a new set of healthier beliefs together with behavioural/exposure strategies that worked during treatment, and to prevent a full-blown relapse in the future.

Visit my OCD Topic Store

By Carol Edwards © 2018 Updated 2019


Ways to Resolve Intrusive Guilt

Photo by Rene Asmussen on Pexels.com

First, guilt is an emotion that most people experience. For example, if someone lies, they may feel guilt. If someone steals, it’s likely they’ll feel guilt. If someone has deliberate unkind thoughts about someone, guilt might follow. The list goes on… you get the general idea.

Levels of normal guilt

Normally, unkind thoughts and misdoings tend to have a relationship in terms of the level of guilt a person feels. The intensity of guilt, however, does not usually preoccupy the person’s mind for too long, not in the general sense of things at least. Even on occasions when someone is likely to feel overly guilty for various reasons, such as having a fear of being morally bad for perceived indiscretions, they are still able to resolve the problem and eventually move on and let the emotion pass.

Guilt associated with Religious OCD

However, when religious or moral OCD plays a role in this otherwise natural emotion (guilt), it’s fair to say that it isn’t a fluke that OCD has found a person’s vulnerability about what matters to them most. As a result, their standards are “affected”. This is because misplaced guilt intrudes on the way they believe they should think, feel and behave according to their values, religion or other doctrines.

John’s normal guilt

Let’s take “John’s” situation as an example. His family is religious. They have brought him up to have strict moral standards. Still, when he was 15 years old, he had thoughts to steal money from his local church’s donation fund. One day he gave into those thoughts. Later that day he felt shame and guilt.

John’s guilty conscience followed with a series of what-ifs? For example, what if he went back into the church and the priest announced that he saw him steal the money? What if the priest were to tell his parents or call the police? There were lots of worst-case scenarios going on, and all tangible, because something really did happen for John to feel shame, guilt and regret.

Thou shalt not steal

Time passed, John grew up, and the event faded from his mind. However, one day he happened upon one of the Ten Commandments on Wikipedia while Googling something for his religious studies. The words “Thou shalt not steal” triggered thoughts about the earlier theft incident. The nature of what he did all those years ago started to play on his mind. He started to feel distressed about whether he should have owned up to stealing the money or at least prayed for forgiveness.

On reflection, John decided it would be better for him to put the theft incident to rest rather than dwell on it. He felt he could do this because deep inside he knew stealing was wrong and was sorry for that. He was aware that having a conscience was enough to know that he’d been dishonest and that this in itself was punishment enough. And so from this perspective, he was able to pray for God’s forgiveness, forgive himself and move on.

In the above example, you can see how, when OCD is separated from natural guilt, the “what-ifs?” are appropriate in this situation and therefore, the resolve for John fits with the emotions experienced. Moreover, this one incident was a learning experience for him; he knew his true morals were good and stealing was something he knew he would never do again. This is an example of what is known as state-guilt, meaning that the corresponding emotion is transitory. In other words, John knew, inherently, that the theft situation, although wrong, was out of character for him; and thus, forgivable.

John’s intrusive guilt

Let’s say this time John experienced intrusive thoughts about the theft. After reading the commandment “thou shalt not steal”, imagine he is beside himself with guilt and shame. He’d already confessed to his parents, prayed with them for God’s forgiveness, paid back the money (and extra, out of guilt), repeatedly asked for reassurance, and yet a year later the problem persisted.

Now, in an attempt to make the problem go away, John would conjure up good words to block the intrusive ones that made him out to be corrupt in the eyes of God. He didn’t quite understand why he had these thoughts and often asked himself “what-if” questions such as, “What if I’m not worthy of going to church?” “What if the priest gets suspicious of my thoughts? What if God thinks I’m not truly sorry for what I did?” “Should I go to confession again?” “What if God punishes me and sends me to hell if I don’t confess just one more time?”

Again, lots of worst-case scenarios going on, just like in the first example, but in this case, the “what-ifs” were hard to define. They were hard to define because intrusive thoughts have no substance. These thoughts had latched on to what mattered most to John. Subsequently, and despite the real-event theft situation, he failed to see that his intrusive thoughts were at odds with his true moral values, or at least doubted this. In this situation, he was experiencing trait-guilt, meaning that the emotion one feels is about the character they believe they are, which for John, was inherently bad.


Time passed by, John grew up, and the intrusive thoughts had become less intense over time, and he was able to function well enough in all aspects of life. However, John happened upon a story in the newspaper of a man who’d been sent to prison for stealing from several Gospel Halls in and around his hometown.  This had him wondering again whether his conscience had been cleared, after all. He labelled himself morally corrupt and decided that perhaps “confessing” again could be the answer to relieving himself of the “guilt” and “shame” that he was experiencing all over again. 

The thought of being morally unacceptable was too much for him to cope with. Once again, OCD had found its grip, and the frequency and strength of the obsession began to invade his mind. Subsequently, he felt urged to “tell” his closest and most trusted friend about his perceived “immorality” and felt a sense of relief because his friend reassured him that all was fine. However, it wasn’t long before he started to think that perhaps he should seek out reassurance by going to different priests and “confessing” what he’d done years before, and so it went on.

Exactly how did OCD play a role in this otherwise natural emotion for John? 

Earlier, it was noted that usually, an actual misdeed has a reciprocal relationship with the level of guilt experienced. Yet, when someone has an OCD episode one feels intrusive guilt, not actual guilt. This is the part that is hard to define. In any case, a resolve can never be in accordance with the emotions experienced because the guilt is invalid; it’s an obsession as a result of an obsession.

For instance, John had justifiably resolved the theft issue years before (state-guilt). This was through the rational judgement of character and forgiveness as opposed to the present, in which his compulsion to “confess” was as a result of an obsession about perceived immorality. In other words, since obsessions are untrue pieces of information coming into consciousness, it means his recent confession and all his other rituals would be inconsistent with his true character and behaviours. The reason for this is that the real event is separate from OCD whether forgiveness and resolve has already taken place or not; also, trait-guilt has an invalid connection with an obsession.

So what was the solution for John?

John learned in cognitive behavioural therapy that his intrusive thoughts were, and are, just that. Cognitive strategies helped him alter thinking errors that link to erroneous beliefs, such as, “What if God hasn’t truly forgiven me for stealing? (thinking error); this will mean I’m evil and will go to hell (faulty entrenched belief)”. The behavioural part of therapy known as exposure response prevention helped John systematically resist giving into compulsions. With dedicated practice, his obsession weakened, and he found remission.


With new healthier beliefs people who have similar experiences as John place themselves in a better position to identify that their recently established praying, blocking, “confessing” and/or other compulsions no longer need to be given into. This is because the rituals only serve to reinforce and feed their religious or moral obsession. A secondary obsession (“guilt”) and fearing that one’s conscience hasn’t been cleared adds to the problem. Balanced perspective in cognitive therapy firmly addresses and resolves misplaced, intrusive guilt; also, it addresses trait-guilt and demonstrates, objectively, how this emotion is inconsistent with one’s true character and behaviours. Finally, systematically resisting ALL COMPULSIONS in exposure-response prevention builds distress tolerance and leads gradually to habituation.

Visit my OCD Topics Store

What to do when a Phobia Becomes Obsessive

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

First, a phobia usually involves having a fear of spiders, dogs, fire, open or closed spaces, heights, animals, blood, or something else. Often, people are affected only when faced with their specific phobia; yet, they can generally switch off when their fear is out of sight.

Specific Phobia

A specific phobia is persistent and intense. There is a compelling need to flee or avoid the feared object, substance or situation. These are factors that are determined before the symptoms are classified as a phobia. Also, confirming that the person’s fear is seen as irrational and not reasonable in the given situation.


In comparison, people who have obsessions are usually never free from their fears, even though these don’t legitimately exist. For example, having a fear of harm coming to a loved one if certain items are not symmetrical, is an obsession. Subsequently, the corresponding ritual to “prevent” harm is to align the objects repeatedly. It’s these rituals that strengthen the obsession.

Obsessive Phobia

There is another factor to consider, which comes from Isaac Mark’s expression “obsessive phobia” which is not, as he puts it, ‘a direct fear of a given object or situation, but rather of the results which are imagined to arise from it’. While there is a distinction between a standard phobia and an obsession, an overlap can be noticed when a person shows signs of one and the other.

So let’s say a person fears spiders but doesn’t think about them when they are out of sight – this would indicate the norm for a standard phobia. For instance, obsessive-compulsive symptoms seen in a person who has OCD is non-existent in the person who has a phobia. However, when someone who fears spiders repeatedly locks all windows and covers door gaps to avoid spiders getting into their home, the diagnosis might be better suited as “obsessive phobia”. This is because obsessional behaviour is being used to counter the feared thing (Issac Mark).

I struggled with an obsessive-phobia similar to that which is described above about spiders; later, I’ll explain how I overcame this. For now, another example is of a man who has a fear of high-rise buildings. Many are visible on his way to work. This man doesn’t think of tall buildings when they are not in sight. But when he walks a different route to work every morning, where the areas are flat, he is using an avoidance ritual, indicating that he has an obsessive-phobia.


In the same way cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and exposure response prevention (ERP) are both used to help a person reduce symptoms seen in OCD, the same methods are used to help people overcome phobias and also obsessive-phobias. Medication (SSRIs) and Mindfulness are also often integrated into the person’s treatment plan.

The cognitive side of therapy helps change the perception about feared things, and exposure-response prevention means a person systematically resists giving into compulsions. For example, in graduated steps, the person who has an obsessive-compulsive fear of high-rise buildings would agree to walk by areas where there are tall buildings. First with just one or two, and to tolerate associated anxiety until it reduced naturally, and before going on to the next step, which might be to stand by the buildings; next, to go inside the premises, and so on. The main goal would be to climb the steps of the buildings or to ride up in the elevator.

Overcoming my obsessive-phobia of spiders

TRIGGER WARNING: I dealt with my obsessive-phobia of spiders by initially agreeing not to cover door gaps and to bear with my anxiety until it came down. When my anxiety reduced to 30% on the distress scale overall, I was ready to tackle my next fear on my list, which was agreeing to look at small spiders, then to hold them; next, I looked at bigger spiders, and before letting one crawl on me. Finally, I was able to handle a tarantula!

Carol Edwards – Overcoming my fear of spiders

Visit my OCD Topic Store

OCD – Why Include Mindfulness into Therapy

Research is always looking at improving patient engagement and to decrease drop-out rates. A pilot study to integrate Mindfulness into ERP (Strauss et al, 2015) showed the drop-out rate was twenty-five percent. It could be said that the reason for this is that people on the OCD spectrum who show poor distress tolerance need the combined approach to help them complete their course of ERP treatment.

Photo by Oleksandr Pidvalnyi on Pexels.com

What about those who do ERP successfully, how can Mindfulness help them?

Well, while some do complete their course of exposure response prevention (ERP) therapy successfully, there are others who don’t fully engage with the assigned ERP homework tasks out of the therapy room. This means treatment outcome is poorer than it is for others who do fully engage. Bringing in Mindfulness can be an additional benefit either way.

If ERP effectively desensitises a person from the things they fear, wouldn’t Mindfulness distract away from this goal?

No, because Mindfulness opposed to distraction is that the first represents a state of awareness and so the focus is the accepted attention towards intrusive thoughts in a non-judgmental way. Whereas, distraction is non-acceptance; therefore, avoidance/escape from the intrusive thoughts, which, as compulsions go, only serve to reinforce the problem.

But what about anxiety, how can someone manage this whilst accepting the thoughts?

Mindfulness training is also about accepting feelings and bodily sensations. It means a person remains concentrated on the exposure situation and leans into the anxiety. Therapy teaches them that anxiety rises and falls and eventually reaches a plateau.

So Mindfulness enhances therapy, is that right?

Yes, many take very well to Mindfulness because learning to be non-judgmental about their intrusive thoughts frees them from ruminations. The chance of attempting to divert from the intrusive thoughts therefore becomes less likely.  In a nutshell, the aim is to Acknowledge unwanted thoughts are there; to Accept the thoughts as intrusive and nothing more; and to then Allow the thoughts to come and go without negative appraisal and compulsive responses.  

How does Mindfulness help with emotions such as guilt and shame?

It teaches someone that it’s counterproductive to dwell on these emotions. Guilt and shame are best seen as intrusive and treated as such. For example, just like an intrusive thought might be about harm and Acknowledging it, Accepting it, and Allowing it to come and go, the same would apply to guilt, shame and disgust. This is because the harm obsession is null and void; therefore, guilt and other destructive emotions would be misplaced.

What if guilt is carried over from a real-live event and has become part of the obsession related to that guilt?

Despite past events morphing into an obsession, it’s important to recognise that resulting emotions about the obsession are sensations that make us believe something is true about us, yet are non-factual. In other words, if someone suffered sexual abuse as a child, and later were to label themselves “disgusting” for having paedophilia-intrusive thoughts, and feeling guilty about that, the labelling would be the result of erroneous beliefs about the obsession, not the past event involving abuse. Active listening from a therapist helps to legitimately address and resolve blame/guilt from the real-life event, and then it moves on and concentrates on the process for Mindfulness exposure to treat the obsession.

Does Mindful-based ERP combine well with medication?

Yes, medication helps reduce the symptoms of OCD by changing the brain’s chemistry on a passive level. This helps a person engage in the cognitive side of therapy. The benefit from cognitive change plus the decrease in symptoms from medication further prepares for the active part in therapy, ERP, which leads to recovery.

How else can Mindfulness encourage people to respond more positively to ERP?

To understand that it provides an opening for full awareness, and to see that people are in charge of their choices. This way, they learn to mindfully influence what happens in any situation; instead of reacting automatically (emotionally). A Mindfulness-based approach to ERP helps someone better recognise the urges that would have them give in to compulsions for temporary gain, and to make a choice to resist these for long-term gain, which is recovery (remission) or much-reduced symptoms.

Which book do you recommend?

Everyday Mindfulness for OCD: Tips, Tricks, and Skills for Living Joyfully” by Jon Hershfield, MFT and Shala Nicely, LPC.

Discover how you can stay one step ahead of your OCD. You’ll learn about the world of mindfulness, and how living in the present moment non-judgmentally is so important when you have OCD. You’ll also explore the concept of self-compassion; what it is, what it isn’t, how to use it, and why people with OCD benefit from it. Finally, you’ll discover daily games, tips, and tricks for outsmarting your OCD, meditations and mindfulness exercises, and much, much more.



Exposure response prevention has been practiced for almost half-a-century and remains the most effective therapy for treating OCD. With Mindfulness integrated into the process this offers a solution for improving task engagement (in and out of the therapy room) and offers scope for preventing relapse.

By Carol Edwards 2018 Updated 2019

Visit my OCD Topic Store 

How to Stop OCD Messing with your Studies!

Do you forget information and worry there’s a fault with your memory? Do you have fears you didn’t read or write everything correctly? Do you doubt yourself and believe your academic future is in trouble?

Photo by Public Domain Pictures on Pexels.com

When OCD starts messing with your studies, it’s time to take action.

Below are 7 tips to help you get back on track!


Tip 1  – Do the 3 A’s.

Do the 3 A’s: (1) Acknowledge the intrusive thoughts (2) Accept they are there (3) Allow them to come and go with anxiety (it will come down by itself once it’s reached a peak, usually within the hour).

Doing the 3 A’s helps intrusive thoughts filter out more smoothly; blocking them or fighting them makes them push through more. When they push through more, it increases the strength of obsessional doubts and keeps you in a never-ending circle of what-ifs? Identifying at this point that intrusive doubts are based on nothing concrete and not worth investing your; instead, concentrate on moving away from the doubts by focusing on the present. Think about what needs to be done (studying) and without stopping to ask yourself or others why your memory seems to be “failing” you (this is a fear, not legit); no re-reading or double-checking either, this holds you back (not easy I know, but worth it… the obsession is nonsensical anyway). Choosing to study in the present guards against your falling into the trap of additional reassurance and checking compulsions, which fuels the obsession.


Tip 2  – Be aware that your experiences are showing you otherwise.

Think about your past achievements, your tutor’s appraisals, your ongoing efforts to present good work, and the ruling out of any medical cause (memory). Next, remind yourself that your proven abilities outweigh problems with memory and recall (and other obsessional worries too). Hector Peguero quotes: “The moment you feel it creeping in, it’s time to act.” In other words, step back from ruminations, tune into your intuitive self and observe the situation. Put in some perspective and decide to shift your mental state by taking a break (grab a glass of water and breathe in some fresh air), and then go back to your studies while simultaneously practising the 3 A’s.


Tip 3  – Practice the STOPP method.

Be mindful. Use the STOPP method.

The STOPP method can help you self-regulate and tune back into your natural abilities. 



O — OBSERVE: What am I thinking? What am I reacting to? What am I feeling?

P — PUT IN SOME PERSPECTIVE. See the bigger picture. Is this a fact or an opinion? Is it fear related? How would someone else see this? How do I move on from this? What strategies do I have? What is my new perspective?

P — PRACTICE WHAT WORKS: What’s the best thing for me to do right now? Can the 3 A’s work for me? Can I remind myself that intrusive thoughts are not worth investing in? How else can I manage this situation rationally for a more favourable outcome? What would I advise someone else to do in the same situation? Generate as many ideas as you can and use what works in the moment.


Tip 4  – Use the downward arrow technique.

If doubts continue to plague you, use the downward arrow technique to find a deeper level belief. The one below is on memory, but you can change it to something else, like, “What’s so bad about not double-checking?” Adapt as you go along…

Ask yourself the same or similar questions until you get your answer. For example:

What’s so bad about having a memory problem?

If I cannot learn, I cannot be knowledgeable.

What’s so bad about that?

Without knowledge life would be boring.

And what’s the worst about that?

I would have no prospects and therefore no future, just a mere existence.

Finally, what’s the worst about that?

I would be seen as a failure and my life would be pointless.

Notice how this technique shows a fear-related problem. In this instance, you can eliminate the fear by tuning in to your natural ability and instead listen to your intuitive self. Bring out your strengths! Write them down on sticky notes and stick them to your computer, your door, your wall (wherever you like) and remind yourself that you’re a brainbox with a normal memory and get past the negative hurdle… jump back up to tips 1, 2 and 3 and get back into perspective!


Tip 5  – Tackle doubts with the yin and yang strategy.

If you find you doubt your doubts, use the yin versus yang approach!

The “Yin versus Yang” method is useful for tackling doubts and fears which can interrupt your new healthier beliefs and perceptions where you argue with the positive belief. The argument often includes “what ifs?” and “buts” which can hold you back. Therefore, using a zig-zag technique allows you the opportunity to argue the two beliefs effectively.

YIN: Healthy positive choice of belief. YANG: Belief based on doubt/worry

Yin → My learning is productive with sound memory and knowledge; I have gained and retained my learning objectives so my recall is intact.

Yang ← What if that’s not the case? It doesn’t feel like that.

Yin → The facts say so and I do recall information following my revision periods, I just doubt that I don’t.

Yang ← What if I’m kidding myself? What if this isn’t really the case?

Yin→ My experiences are showing me otherwise.

Yang ← But there’s always a chance that I could be wrong and my memory is faulty.

Yin → Well I could be wrong; yet, living with uncertainty in the face of an obsession is healthier than struggling with never-ending doubts and what-ifs, and let’s face it, OCD is a fraud anyway. It’s more likely I’m stressed due to exams coming up and worrying about what my future prospects will be.

Yang ← But how can I be sure? I mean I know I’m stressed, but this is beyond what I can bear.

Yin → I can go around this circle only to come to the same conclusion which is that my problem is one of emotional reasoning which has caused me to believe my memory is suffering. I can get past this with a rational mind. By altering my emotional responses to more logical responses, I can help myself. For example, I can decide to live with uncertainty when doubt creeps in and bear with associated anxiety until it reduces naturally; or carry on worrying and getting nowhere fast.


Tip 6  – Write an exposure script.

Exposure scripts. These scripts can help you live with uncertainty.

There has to be no reassurance statements in an exposure script, otherwise it won’t work. This is because reassurance statements are compulsions, and compulsions strengthen the obsession. 

Record your script on to a loop tape and listen to it several times each day (say 20 minutes 4 times a day). The one below is an example. Notice how there are no reassurance statements. The intention is to become bored with the OCD threat since boredom and fear cannot be experienced together (Fred Prenzil), so one usually overrides the other. Your job is to get bored with your irrational fear…

Exposure Script: “In life the truth is that I can never have 100% certainty about anything. No matter how many times I go over the doubts in my mind, it can never be ascertained that my recall has or hasn’t failed me. Neither can I be certain of ever being released from the possibility of having no prospects or future stability due to poor memory. Besides, it cannot be made certain that my re-reading, double-checking and seeking reassurance rituals will save me from having a fruitless life, all without knowledge and wisdom. Further, the more I listen to my OCD and let it determine the limiting factors of my behaviours and actions, the more my symptoms will intensify. The sooner I recognise that OCD thoughts are based on irrational fears that serve emotional rather than sensible reasoning, the sooner my recovery will start; or improve.”


Tip 7 – When in doubt go back to tips 1-6.

When in doubt jump back up and re-read tips 1-6 or whichever tip helps you the best… most of all, enjoy being a student, you have everything going for you!!


Visit my OCD Topic Store at: https://www.ocdtopicsfortherapists.com/

My Misophonia

This educational document takes the reader through an interesting journey in which the author (Carol Edwards) explores personal accounts of living with Misophonia (hatred of sounds) coupled with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Researched information including proposed diagnostic criteria as a standalone neurological disorder for entry into the DSM-5 is added to this fascinating description of one's aversion to sounds, colours, smells and movements with the added detail of grief, sensory processing problems and more. This document comes with a 15-question homework assignment to reinforce the learning objectives and lists some important treatment goals. The article is approx 4, 500 words priced at only £2 or currency equivalent. A shareable PDF link is sent to the buyer's email address following purchase.


Tips to Help a Depressed Teen

Photo by Zun Zun on Pexels.com

Physical signs to look out for

In spotting the signs of depression, you may notice your teen complaining of physical changes, such as sleep disturbances, appetite changes (eating more or less than usual), gaining or losing weight, complaining of headaches, stomach aches, joint and muscle aches. During a physical state, a teenager’s thinking can often get confused, meaning they are unable to understand their shifting mood states. This means their ability to cope environmentally (e.g., at school) is reduced. While this condition causes physical symptoms, and on rare occasions has physical causes, it is not a disease, yet is often unpreventable except with medication.

Variation in moods

Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, anger, agitation and despair occur when a teen is depressed. Variation in moods can change throughout the day for them, which might be worse in the morning yet improve later in the day; or vice-versa. You may see your teen seemingly apathetic. They may start to lose interest in school projects and the activities and hobbies they used to enjoy.


Also be on the look-out for cognitive symptoms which include a youngster’s experiencing persistent negative beliefs about themselves and their abilities. Cognitive symptoms can also slow down thoughts, making concentrating on tasks difficult. Taking in central coherence during class and remembering and making decisions can also be part of depressed moods, so something else to consider if you find your young person’s grades suffering.

Social/motivational symptoms

You may notice your teen’s lack of social activity deteriorating. Hanging out with friends or visiting/receiving visitors starts to become a struggle. Also, withdrawing from one’s immediate family where your teen will spend much of their time in their room starts to become apparent; and further, showing a lack of motivation when getting ready for school or out-of-school activities. Teenagers may also appear to lose interest in close relationships.

“Early Warning Systems” 

The “Early warning systems” helps teens evaluate why they are feeling a particular way. For example, if your youngster starts to feel low in the afternoon, s/he might think that their mood will worsen and never get better, where it might mean they had little sleep the night before. By understanding and using the “early warning system” teens begin to grasp the difference between feelings and facts and how to determine what it is that caused their mood change in the first place. They learn to identify specific challenges, e.g., in certain environments, with people/friends, physical, emotional, negative lifestyle, medication etc. and how to problem solve.

Finding the key to an early warning system means a depressed teen can then consider how to manage their moods independently. The above factors are discussed in more detail in Effective Ways to Manage Depression and further discusses major depressive disorder, also ways a therapist helps support a teen/adult manage their symptoms.


Early Warning Systems are key factors that can help support a clinically depressed teen by evaluating why their moods are low and how to manage and monitor such moods.

Carol Edwards © 2016. Updated Jan. 2019

Disclaimer: This document is information-based only; therefore if your child/teen is experiencing any of the symptoms discussed in this article please consult with your medical practitioner for their advice, and before going ahead with suggested strategies. 

Visit my OCD Topic store at: https://www.ocdtopicsfortherapists.com/

How I Gained Confidence to Live with OCD Doubts?

building metal house architecture
Photo by PhotoMIX Ltd. on Pexels.com

Complex thinking

AS human beings, we are complex in our thinking and can be affected by certain influences depending on the situation. We want to be sure that we’re okay, that our families are safe, even when that comes with some uncertainty. For most of us, this is fine because naturally, we know certainty cannot be guaranteed. We live our lives accepting probability, and we take appropriate care to minimise risk (e.g., locking doors once before going out in the morning and at night before getting into bed).

When OCD interferes

However, when OCD interferes, emotion and conflict tend to get in the way of rational thought. For instance, I remember having intrusive thoughts about something bad happening to my family if I didn’t double-check all the doors and windows were locked. No matter how many times I checked the doors, my anxiety would resurface and often reached uncomfortable limits. I saw this as evidence that risk was high; so I did the compulsion one more time to minimise the chance of harm, and to feel safe. Without OCD, I might have initially thought “how strange” but then let the thoughts go without thinking any more about it.

How insight plays a role

When we have good insight, it allows for a better understanding of different perspectives. For instance, if we believe our feelings are not evidence of facts, then our thinking style will be less judgmental. Rationally thinking about what might or might not happen and then influencing what we do next helps with sound decision making. For example, Mr X locks the door once before going to work; therefore, he trusts that while he’s at work, the chance of a burglar breaking in is minimal. When OCD comes into play, however, it clouds insight, meaning the “feelings-versus-facts perspective” is hard to grasp. For instance, and in contrast to Mr X, I remember catastrophising. Subsequently, this not only made my anxiety worse; it also had me believing there was an underlying “threat”. I was on constant alert, repeatedly checking the doors were locked to ward off perceived danger.

Identify stress

It can be helpful to identify that stress could be making things worse. For example, an extra workload, moving home, problems in a relationship, new baby, and so on, can all add to common every-day stressors. However, acute stress or burnout can cause strange sensations (such as depersonalisation) and erroneously have us think that our OCD thoughts and feelings are inconsistent with the regular OCD cycle. Even still, we’re left with the choice to stand back and put in some rational perspective; or continue to make things worse with what-ifs and doubts about our state of mind.

Managing doubts

Cognitive behavioural therapy helps to change thinking errors based on emotional reasoning and gives us the confidence to live with doubts and uncertainty. It sets the foundation for engaging in the systematic resisting of negative reinforcing compulsions. Exposure-response prevention (ERP) is the gold standard evidence-based treatment for this and leads to remission or much-reduced symptoms. One of my exposures was leaving the door unlocked and living with risk; it helped me see that my anxiety and emotional evaluation influenced my decisions before remission. I lock the doors once now, and then walk away, trusting that I’m able to get through a day/night knowing that, while certainty can never be guaranteed, the risk of harm is low. Also, to see that should something bad happen in any case, that I would cope.


Medication (SSRIs or  tricyclic antidepressants) can be helpful as an adjunct to ERP, especially when symptoms are moderate-severe.  Medication alters brain chemistry to reduce symptoms, usually by up to 60%. ERP, on the other hand, actively alters brain chemistry (neuroplasticity).


Generally, we are complicated thinkers, but rationally, we manage risk in terms of probability. For those of us on the OCD spectrum, however, the symptoms interfere by introducing doubts and what-ifs; as a consequence, an emotional evaluation interferes with our rational perspective. Insight helps us clarify the difference between feelings versus facts; yet, extra stress can cause us to feel confused about what our thoughts/sensations mean. Cognitive therapy addresses this to change thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and ERP is the active therapy that can lead to remission or much reduced symptoms. Finally, medication is a helpful adjunct alongside active therapy.

Visit my OCD Topic Store at: https://www.ocdtopicsfortherapists.com/

Copyright © Carol Edwards 2018 Updated 2019